Biology Lab Report

Topics: Blood, Blood pressure, Hypertension Pages: 16 (3054 words) Published: November 28, 2013


Title of programme: Introduction to Biology and Essential Clinical Skills

Number of words: 2605

Introduction to Biology and Essential Clinical Skills (IBECS 2)

c) Effects of posture on blood pressure (week 12)

Introduction:

This laboratory report will discuss the effects of posture on blood pressure carried out in class. It was analysed the blood pressure of 10 individuals. Blood pressure was obtained in sitting posture (at rest), sitting (immediately after exercise), lying spine (after 5 minutes) and standing quickly from a spine position. Through these different types of posture I could detect the effects of posture on blood pressure.

Blood pressure is the contraction of the heart with each beat and contraction of blood vessels when blood passes through them. Blood pressure increases with each heartbeat and decreases when the heart contracts between beats. When the heart muscle contracts taking blood to be oxygenated in the lungs this is called systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure occurs when there is a relaxation in the heart muscle, this is the oxygenated blood coming from the lungs returns as deoxygenated blood to the arteries (Hales, 2011).

Results:
Table
Positions
Sitting (at rest)
Sitting (immediately after exercise)
Lying spine (after 5 minutes)
Standing quickly from a spine position
1.
120/73 mmHg
122/82 mmHg
110/70 mmHg
112/72 mmHg
2.
119/63 mmHg
125/70 mmHg
116/60 mmHg
124/72 mmHg
3.
122/62 mmHg
162/58 mmHg
128/64 mmHg
126/64 mmHg
4.
92/66 mmHg
122/90 mmHg
110/62 mmHg
112/66 mmHg
5.
140/60 mmHg
160/90 mmHg
108/70 mmHg
160/85 mmHg
6.
120/80 mmHg
155/90 mmHg
140/70 mmHg
140/70 mmHg
7.
120/75 mmHg
150/78 mmHg
120/60 mmHg
140/80 mmHg
8.
130/60 mmHg
140/68 mmHg
124/62 mmHg
124/70 mmHg
9.
108/78 mmHg
130/73 mmHg
100/62 mmHg
98/62 mmHg
10.
112/84 mmHg
150/80 mmHg
110/66 mmHg
112/78 mmHg
Average

118/68 mmHg
141/76 mmHg
116/65 mmHg
125/72 mmHg

At sitting position (at rest) the highest value was 140/60 mmHg and the lowest value was 92/66 mmHg. The average baseline for the blood pressure during the sitting position (at rest) was 118/68 mmHg. At sitting position (immediately after exercise) the highest value was 162/58 mmHg and the lowest value was 122/82 mmHg. The average for this posture was 141/76 mmHg.

At lying spine position the highest value was 140/70 and the lowest value was 108/70 mmHg. The average for this position was 116/65 mmHg. The last position was standing quickly from a spine position and the highest value according with the table was 160/85 mmHg and the lowest value was of 125/72 mmHg. The average for this position was 125/70 mmHg.

Discussion:

Heart is a muscular organ about the size of a person’s fist and is located in the center of the thorax. The heart is divided into the right and left side, the division protects oxygen reach blood from mixing with oxygen pure blood. Together the heart and the blood vessels comprise the cardiovascular system which circulates blood and oxygen around the body. The heart walls are composed of three layers, pericardium which is a fibrous layer that helps to protect the heart, another layer of the heart is the myocardium, this layer is the heart muscle and makes the contraction of the heart to pump blood around the body. The last layer of the heart is the endocardium; this layer lines the chambers of the heart.

The heart has four chambers, two atria and two ventricles. Each of these chambers is lined with endocardium, which makes blood flows easily through the heart (Marieb, 2010). The heart carries blood to all parts of the body in vessels called arteries (Edlin and Golanty, 2010)....

References: Edlin, G. and Golanty E., 2010.Health & Wellness. 10th ed. Canada: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Gans, M., Walsh, N.E. and Bonckenek, W. L., 2004. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice. 4th ed. PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Hales, D., 2011. An Invitation to Health: Choosing to Change.7th ed. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Hoeger, W.K. and Hoeger, S.A., 2011. Lifetime Physical Fitness and Wellness: A Personalized Program. 11th ed. CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Homola, S., 2002. The Chiropractor’s Self-Help Back and Body Book: Your Complete Guide to Relieving Aches and Pains at Home and on the job. CA: Hunter House Inc.
Marieb, E.N., 2010. Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 10th ed. CA: Pearson.
McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. and Katch V., 1998. Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy and Human Performance. 6th ed. PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Sherwood, L., 2011. Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
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