Diabetes Research Paper
Pathology Fall 2010
Diabetes is a disease that affects currently 23.6 million people, about 7.8% of the population. Diabetes comes from a high level of sugar in the blood for a long period of time. Ways to control it are by diet, exercise, medicine and insulin injections. There are four known types of diabetes: Prediabetes, which is a condition that raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes; Type 1, which generally affects primarily the younger population; Type 2, which generally affects the adult population; and gestational diabetes which affects women during their third trimester of pregnancy. While scientists are not sure of the exact cause of the disease they do know that it is caused by a variety of factors. Such factors are heredity, being overweight, and problems with the beta cells in the pancreas. Diabetes can result in blurred vision, retinopathy, nerve problems, dry skin, and kidney issues. Diet plays a major role in preventing these problems. Sugar concentration in the blood is a major factor for diabetics, so understanding the sugar content of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates is essential. The goal from a diet perspective is to control your sugar in your bloodstream in such a way that the insulin in your bloodstream can manage it effectively. In addition to diet, medication and exercise play an important role in controlling this disease. Currently, while there are great advancements in the treatment and prevention of, there is no known cure for diabetes. Definition of Diabetes
Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body. After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach. When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose. (NDIC, what is diabetes?)
Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes. The primary targets for this type of diabetes are children or young adults, but it has been known to affect people of any age. It accounts for approximately 5-10% of diagnosed cases of diabetes. (AADE, diabetes fact sheet, 2007) With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin. So they must take daily insulin injections. Injections are necessary because if taken orally the stomach acids will make it ineffective to the body. The cause of type 1 diabetes is when the immune system destructs the beta cells in the pancreas. Treatment for Type 1 is typically insulin injections in conjunction with diet and exercise. Type 2
Also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult onset diabetes. It accounts for 90-95% of the diagnosed cases of diabetes. (AADE, diabetes fact sheet, 2007) With Type 2 diabetes the beta cells in the pancreas do not produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body. Some factors that contribute to type 2 are heredity, being overweight, lack of exercise, and age. Treatment involves a good exercise regimen and diet counseling to help combat obesity which is a growing cause of type 2 diabetes. Treatment also includes monitoring of insulin levels and oral drugs when needed.
Source: 2004–2006 National Health Interview Survey
Effects Type 1 and 2 have...
References: i National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC), www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov, Diabetes Overview.
ii Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, www.cdc.gov/diabetes, Diabetes and me, Basics of Diabetes, Groups affected by diabetes, What are the Types of Diabetes?
iii American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE), www.diabetesamerica.com, Diabetes fact sheet, 2007.
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