What is protein?
Protein is the building block of all the tissue in the body including hair, nails, skin and muscle. As it relates to exercise, protein provides the body with the material it needs to repair damaged muscle tissue.
It has several functions including (but not limited to): providing energy, building/repairing tissue and structural support (skin and hair)
What are the types of proteins?
The largest class of proteins are structural proteins. These protein types serve as essential components to your body's construction. Keratin and collagen are the most common structural proteins. These are strong, fibrous proteins. Keratin forms the structure of your skin, nails, hair and teeth. While, collagen serves as a connective structure for your tendons, bones, muscles, cartilage and skin in particular.
Storage proteins house critical elements that your cells need. Hemoglobin is a vital protein that stores oxygen in your red blood cells. This critical protein is transported to all of your cells and tissues as your blood circulates. Ferritin is a storage protein that houses the crucial element iron, which helps your body make healthy red blood cells. It is composed of complex polypeptide chains and is released when needed.
Hormonal proteins act as chemical messengers. They carry signals through a complex communication process known as your endocrine and exocrine system. This system is composed of hormone producing glands and cells. Your pancreas excretes the hormone insulin, which is released in response to your blood sugar levels, for example. Insulin is transported through your bloodstream to remove sugar when your blood sugar levels are elevated.
Enzymes serve as biological catalysts needed for chemical reactions. Digestive enzymes help your body digest food, for instance. They split complex molecules into simple forms for your body to use. Amylolytic digestive enzymes reduce carbohydrates and starches to glucose and proteolytic enzymes reduce proteins to amino acids.
Your body must protect itself from invaders and other foreign substances. Immunoglobulin's serve this purpose. They act as antibodies, release in response to antigen recognition. Each immunoglobulin protects against a different antigen type. Immunoglobulin A provides protection against mucosal antigens. These are bacteria or viruses found in your saliva for example.
Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/523127-5-types-of-protein/#ixzz2QCNzwTLG Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/523127-5-types-of-protein/#ixzz2QCNswX7f Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/523127-5-types-of-protein/#ixzz2QCNnBMNJ Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/523127-5-types-of-protein/#ixzz2QCNhDLdO Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/523127-5-types-of-protein/#ixzz2QCNSV212
Explain the role of amino acids in building protein.
Protein is made up of amino acids. There are two types of amino acids; some the body can produce (non-essential amino acids) and others that need to be ingested (essential amino acids). There are nine essential amino acids (isoleucine, valine, leucine, tryptophan, threonine, methionine, arginine, lysine, histidine) that must be provided to the body through proper nutrition.
Describe risks associated with protein deficiency and overconsumption.
Sources of Protein
Foods rich in proteins include animal-based foods such as meats, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products. Among plant-based foods, the best protein sources include legumes such as beans, peas, peanuts and especially soybeans and soy-based foods. -------------------------------------------------
The U.S. government has set the Daily Value for protein at 50 grams for the average older child and adult. Children ages 1 to 4 need 16 grams daily. Infants need 14 grams of protein. Pregnant and nursing women need more, or 60 to 65 grams daily....
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